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Business and Management Innovation

Social Computing - Social Media

Web 2.0

Cloud Computing

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

Business Process Management




Business and Management Innovation

Anderson, Chris, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, 2006. More Info.


Anderson, Chris, Free: The Past and Future of a Radial Price, Hyperion, 2009. More Info.
For a preview check out, “Free! Why $0.00 Is the Future of Business” at

Barwise, Patrick and Sean Meehan, Simply Better: Winning and Keeping Customers by Delivering What Matters Most, Harvard Business School Press, 2004. More Info.

Bono, Edward de, Six Thinking Hats, Penguin Books, 1999. More Info.


Brache, Alan, How Organizations Work, Wiley, 2002. More Info.

Brafman, Ori and Rod A. Beckstrom, The Starfish And the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations, Portfolio, 2006. More Info.


Brodsky, Norm and Bo Burlingham, The Knack: How Street-Smart Entrepreneurs Learn to Handle Whatever Comes Up, Portfolio, 2008. More Info.

Business Process Management Group, In Search Of BPM Excellence: Straight From The Thought Leaders, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2005. More Info.

Chesbrough, Henry, Open Innovation—The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Harvard Business School Press, 2003. More Info.

Chowdhury, Subir, Design For Six Sigma—The Revolutionary Process for achieving Extraordinary Profits, FT Prentice Hall, 2003. More Info.

Christensen, Clayton M and Michael E. Raynor, The Innovator’s Solution—Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth, Harvard Business School Press, 2003. More Info.

Christensen, Clayton, Scott D., Anthony, Roth A., Erik, Seeing What’s Next—Using the Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change, Harvard Business School Press, 2004. More Info.

Cloke, Kenneth and  Joan Goldsmith, The Art of Waking People Up: Cultivating Awareness and Authenticity at Work, Jossey-Bass, 2003. More Info.

Cloke, Kenneth and  Joan Goldsmith, The End of Management and the Rise of Organizational Democracy, Jossey-Bass, 2002. More Info.  


Cross, Robert L. and Andrew Parker, The Hidden Power of Social Networks: Understanding How Work Really Gets Done in Organizations, Harvard Business School Press, 2004. More Info.


Davenport, Thomas H. and Laurence Prusak, Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School Press, 2000. More Info.

Davenport, Thomas H., Thinking for a Living: How to Get Better Performance And Results from Knowledge Workers, Harvard Business School Press, 2005. More Info.

Drucker, Peter, Management Challenges of the 21st Century, Harper Business, 1999. More info.

Dver, Alyssa, No Time Marketing: Small Business-sized Steps in 30 Minutes or Less, Anclote Press, 2009. More Info.

Estrin, Judy,  Closing the Innovation Gap: Reigniting the Spark of Creativity in a Global Economy, McGraw-Hill, 2008. More Info.

Fingar, Peter, Dot Cloud: The 21st Century Business Platform Built on Cloud Computing, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2009. More Info.

Fingar, Peter, and Joseph Bellini, The Real-Time Enterprise: Competing on Time, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2005. More Info.

Fingar, Peter, and Ronald Aronica, The Death of “e” and the Birth of the Real New Economy: Business Models, Technologies and Strategies for the 21st Century, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2005. More Info.

Fingar, Peter, Extreme Competition: Innovation and the Great 21st Century Business Reformation, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2007. More Info.

Foster, Richard, and Sarah Kaplan, Creative Destruction: Why Companies That Are Built to Last Underperform the Market--And How to Successfully Transform Them, Currency, 2001. More Info.

Galbraith, Jay R., Designing the Customer-Centric Organization: A Guide to Strategy, Structure, and Process, Wiley 2005. More Info.

Goleman, Daniel, and Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence, Harvard Business School Press, 2002. More Info.

Graham, Douglas and Bachmann, Thomas T., Ideation—The Birth and Death of Ideas, Wiley, 2004. More Info.

Grantham, Charles, Jim Ware and Cory Williamson, Corporate Agility: A Revolutionary New Model for Competing in a Flat World, Amacom, 2007. More Info.

Greenfield, Adam, Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing, New Riders, 2006. More Info.

Hahn, Robert, Information Markets: A New Way of Making Decisions, AEI Press, 2006. More Info.

Hamel, Gary and Bill Breen, The Future of Management, Harvard Business School Press, 2007. More Info.

Hargagon, Andrew, How Breakthroughs Happen—The Surprising Truth About How Companies Innovate, Harvard Business School Press, 2003. More Info.

Harrison-Broninski, Keith, Human Interactions: The Heart And Soul Of Business Process Management, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2005. More Info.

Harvard Business Essentials, Managing Creativity and Innovation, Harvard Business School Press, 2003. More Info.

Hayes, Tom,  Jump Point: How Network Culture is Revolutionizing Business, McGraw-Hill, 2008. More Info.

Heath, Chip and Dan Heath, Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die, Random House, 2007. More Info.

Herbold, Robert J., The Fiefdom Syndrome, Doubleday, 2004. More Info.

Heskett, Jim, W. Earl Sasser ,and Joe Wheeler, The Ownership Quotient: Putting the Service Profit Chain to Work for Unbeatable Competitive Advantage, Harvard Business School Press, 2008. More Info.

Hock,  Dee W., Birth of the Chaordic Age,  Berrett-Koehler, 2000. More Info.

Hock,  Dee W., One from Many: The Rise of Chaordic Organization, Berrett-Koehler, 2005. More Info.

Howe, Jeff, Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business, Crown Business, 2008. More Info.

Hugos, Michael, The Greatest Innovation Since the Assembly Line: Powerful Strategies for Business Agility, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Jones, Tim, Innovating At The Edge—How Organizations Evolve and Embed Innovation Capability, Butterworth Heinemann, 2002. More Info.

Kaplan S., Robert, Norton P., David, Strategy Maps—Converting Intangible Assets Into Tangible Outcomes, Harvard Business School Press, 2004. More Info.

Kaplan, Robert S. and David P. Norton, The Strategy-Focused Organization, Harvard Business School Press, 2001. More Info.

Kelly, Kevin, Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World, Basic Books, 1995. More Info.

Kelly, Kevin, New Rules for the New Economy, Penguin, 1999. More Info.

Kelley, Tom and Littman, Jonathan, The Art of Innovation—Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America’s Leading Design Firm, Profile Books, 2004. More Info.

Kim, W. Chan, and Renée Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant, Harvard Business School Press, 2005. More Info.

Kotter, John,  A Sense of Urgency,  Harvard Business School Press, 2008. More Info.

Kotter, John,  Leading Change,  Harvard Business School Press, 1996. More Info.

Kurtz, Cynthia, Working With Stories, (free e-book),

Li, Charlene and Josh Bernoff, Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies, Harvard Business School Press, 2008. More Info.

Malone, T. W., K. G. Crowston, and G.Herman, (Eds.), Organizing Business Knowledge: The MIT Process Handbook, MIT Press, 2003. More Info.

Malone, Thomas W., Laubacher, R. J., and Scott Morton, Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century, MIT Press, 2003. More Info.

Malone, Thomas W., The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style and Your Life, Harvard Business School Press, 2004. More Info.

Martin, Roger, The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win Through Integrative Thinking, Harvard Business School Press, 2007. More Info.

McConnell, Carmel, Change Activist—Make Big Things Happen Fast, Pearson Education, 2003.  More Info.

Miers, Derek, Achieving Business Transformation Through Business Process Management, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2009. (forthcoming).

Miller, William L. and Morris, Langdon, Fourth Generation R&D—Managing Knowledge, Technology and Innovation, Wiley, 1999. More Info.

Mulholland, Andy, Jon Pyke, Peter Fingar,  Enterprise Cloud Computing: A Strategy Guide for Business and Technology Leaders, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2010. More Info.

Mulholland, Andy and Nick Earle, Mesh Collaboration, Evolved Technologist, 2008. More Info.

Mulholland, Andy, C. S. Thomas, and P. Kurchina, Mashup Corporations: The End of Business as Usual, Evolved Technologist, 2008.  More Info.

Myerson, Jeremy, IDEO: Masters of Innovation, Lawrence King Publishing, 2001. More Info.

Olson, G. M., Malone, Thomas W., and Smith, J. B. (Eds.), Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology, Erlbaum, 2001. More Info.

Ould, Martyn A., Business Process Management: A Rigorous Approach, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2005. More Info.

Pine, Joseph, and James H. Gilmore, The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre & Every Business a Stage, Harvard Business School Press, 1999. More Info.

Porter, Michael, “What is Strategy?” Harvard Business Review, November-December 1996.

Rummler, Geary A. and Alan Brache, Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space in the Organization Chart, Jossey-Bass, 1995. More Info.

Schrage, Michael, Serious Play—How the world’s best companies simulate to innovate, Harvard Business School Press, 2000.  More Info.

Schumpeter, Joseph A., Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, Harper Perennial, 1962. 2008. More Info.

Senge Peter, The Fifth Discipline—The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization, Randomhouse, 1990.  More Info.

Senge, Peter; et al, The Dance of Change—The Challenges to Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations, Currency Doubleday, 1999. More Info.

Skarzynski, Peter and Rowan Gibson, Innovation to the Core: A Blueprint for Transforming the Way Your Company Innovates, Harvard Business School Press, 2008. More Info.

Shirky, Clay,  Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations, Penguin Press, 2008. More Info.

Smith, Howard and Fingar, Peter, Business Process Management: The Third Wave, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2006. More Info.

Smith, Howard and Fingar, Peter, IT Doesn’t Matter—Business Processes Do: A Critical Analysis of Nicholas Carr's I.T. Article in the Harvard Business Review, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2003. More Info.

Spanyi, Andrew, Business Process Management is a Team Sport: Play it to Win! Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2004. More Info.

Spanyi, Andrew, More for Less, The Power of Process Management Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Stalk, George, and John Butman, Five Future Strategies You Need Right Now (Memo to the Ceo), Harvard Business School Press, 2008. More Info.

Stalk, George, Competing Against Time: How Time-Based Competition is Reshaping Global Markets, Free Press, 2003. More Info.

Stalk, George, Rob Lachenauer, and John Butman, Hardball: Are You Playing to Play or Playing to Win by George Stalk,  Harvard Business School Press, 2004. More Info.

Surowiecki, James, The Wisdom of Crowds, Anchor, 2005. More Info.

Taleb,  Nassim Nicholas,  The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Random House, 2007. More Info.

Thompson, Ken, The Networked Enterprise: Competing for the Future Through Virtual Enterprise Networks, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Thompson, Ken, Bioteams: High Performance Teams Based on Nature's Most Successful Designs, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Tzu, Sun, The Art of War, Many reprint editions, since the original writing in the 6th century BC, See:

Zyman, Sergio with Brott, Armin A., Renovate Before You Innovate—Why Doing the New Thing may not be the Right Thing, Portfolio, 2004. More Info.

Social Computing - Social Media

Bell, Gavin, Building Social Web Applications: Establishing Community at the Heart of Your Site, O'Reilly Media, Inc. More Info.

Bernal, Joey, Web 2.0 and Social Networking for the Enterprise: Guidelines and Examples for Implementation and Management Within our Organization, IBM Press, 2009. More Info.

Breslin, John G., Alexandre Passant and Stefen Decker, The Social Semantic Web, Springer, 2009. More Info.

Brogan, Chris and Julien Smith, Trust Agents: Using the Web to Build Influence, Improve Reputation, and Earn Trust, Wiley, 2009. More Info.

Brown, Rob, Public Relations and the Social Web: How to Use Social Media and Web 2.0 in Communications, Kogan Page, 2009. More Info.

Dan Zarrella, The Social Media Marketing Book, O'Reilly Media, 2009. More Info.

Davies, Julia and Guy Merchant, Web 2.0 for Schools: Learning and Social Participation, Peter Lang Publishing, 2009. More Info.

Espejo, Roman, Should Social Networking Web Sites Be Banned?, Greenhaven Press, 2008. More Info.

Evans, Dave, Social Media Marketing: An Hour a Day, Sybex, 2008. More Info.

Footen, John and Joey Faust, The Service-Oriented Media Enterprise: SOA, BPM, and Web Services in Professional Media Systems, Focal Press, 2008. More Info.

Gentle, Anne, Conversation and Community: The Social Web for Documentation, XML Press, 2009. More Info.

Green, Cindy Estis, The Travel Marketer's Guide to Social Media and Social Networks: Sales and Marketing In A Web 2.0 World, The HSMAI Foundation, 2007. More Info.

Hall, Starr and Chadd Rosenberg, Get Connected: The Social Networking Toolkit for Business, Entrepreneur Press, 2009. More Info.

Harris, David, A Key to Successful Intra-Organizational Job Transfers: Social Networks and Webs of Inclusion, VDM Verlag, 2009. More Info.

Hay, Deltina, A Survival Guide to Social Media and Web 2.0 Optimization: Strategies, Tactics, and Tools for Succeeding in the Social Web, Dalton Publishing, 2009. More Info.

Hoekman, Robert Jr., Designing the Moment: Web Interface Design Concepts in Action, New Riders Press, 2008. More Info.

Howe, Jeff, Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business, Crown Business, 2008. More Info.

Jonghe, An De, Social Networks Around The World: How is Web 2.0 Changing Your Daily Life?, BookSurge Publishing, 2008. More Info.

Li, Charlene and Josh Bernoff, Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies, Harvard Business School Press, 2008. More Info.

Lincoln, Susan Rice, Mastering Web 2.0: Transform Your Business Using Key Website and Social Media Tools, Kogan Page, 2009. More Info.

Lytras, Miltiadis D. and Patricia Ordonez de Pablos, Social Web Evolution: Integrating Semantic Applications and Web 2.0 Technologies, Information Science Reference, 2009. More Info.

Mika, Peter, Social Networks and the Semantic Web, Springer, 2007. More Info.

Mulholland, Andy and Nick Earle, Mesh Collaboration, Evolved Technologist, 2008. More Info.

Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh, Ryszard Kowalczyk, and Shyi-Ming, Chen, Computational Collective Intelligence. Semantic Web, Social Networks and Multiagent Systems, Springer, 2009. More Info.

Papacharissi, Zizi, A Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites, Routledge, August, 2010. More Info.

Porter, Joshua, Designing for the Social Web, New Riders Press, 2008. More Info.

Safko, Lon and David Brake, The Social Media Bible: Tactics, Tools, and Strategies for Business Success, Wiley, 2009. More Info.

Shah, Rawn, Social Networking for Business: Choosing the Right Tools and Resources to Fit Your Needs, Wharton School Publishing, 2010. More Info.

Shih, Clara, The Facebook Era: Tapping Online Social Networks to Build Better Products, Reach New Audiences, and Sell More Stuff, Prentice Hall PTR, 2009. More Info.

Shirky, Clay, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations, Penguin Press, 2008. More Info.

Silver, David, The Social Network Business Plan: 18 Strategies That Will Create Great Wealth, Wiley, 2009. More Info.

Smith, Gene, Tagging: People-powered Metadata for the Social Web, New Riders Press, 2008. More Info.  

Surowiecki, James, The Wisdom of Crowds, Anchor, 2005. More Info.

Tuten, Tracy L., Advertising 2.0: Social Media Marketing in a Web 2.0 World, Praeger, 2008. More Info.

Van Horn, Royal, TECHNOLOGY: Cookies, Web Profilers, Social Network Cartography, and Proxy Servers.(Internet privacy, security): An article from: Phi Delta Kappan, Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., 2004.  

Vickery, Graham and Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, Participative Web And User-Created Content: Web 2.0 Wikis and Social Networking, Organization for Economic Development , 2007. More Info.

Watkins, Craig S., The Young and the Digital: What the Migration to Social Network Sites, Games, and Anytime, Anywhere Media Means for Our Future, Beacon Press, 2009. More Info.

Weber, Larry, Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business, Wiley, 2009. More Info.

Weber, Steve, Plug Your Business! Marketing on MySpace, YouTube, blogs and podcasts and other Web 2.0 social networks, Weber Books, 2007. More Info.

Weinberg, Tamar, The New Community Rules: Marketing on the Social Web, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. More Info.


Web 2.0

Bell, Ann, Exploring Web 2.0: Second Generation Interactive Tools - Blogs, Podcasts, Wikis, Networking, Virtual Words, And More, CreateSpace, 2009. More Info.

Berger, Pam and Sally Trexler, Choosing Web 2.0 Tools for Learning and Teaching in a Digital World, Libraries Unlimited, 2010. (to be released in April, 2010) More Info.

Burrows, Terry, Blogs, Wikis, MySpace, and More: Everything You Want to Know About Using Web 2.0 but Are Afraid to Ask, Chicago Review Press, 2008. More Info.

Carter, Sandy, The New Language of Business: SOA & Web 2.0, IBM Press, 2007. More Info.

Casarez, Vince, Billy Cripe, Jean Sini and Philipp Weckerle, Reshaping Your Business with Web 2.0: Using New Social Technologies to Lead Business Transformation, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2008. More Info.

Coleman, David and Stewart Levine, Collaboration 2.0: Technology and Best Practices for Successful Collaboration in a Web 2.0 World, Happy About, 2008. More Info.

Evans, Alan and Diane M. Coyle, Introduction to Web 2.0, Prentice Hall, 2009. More Info.

Funk, Tom, Web 2.0 and Beyond: Understanding the New Online Business Models, Trends, and Technologies, Praeger , 2008. More Info.

Goto, Kelly and Cotler Emily, Web ReDesign 2.0: Workflow that Works, Peachpit Press, 2004. More Info.

Governor, James, Dion Hinchcliffe and Duane Nickull, Web 2.0 Architectures: What entrepreneurs and information architects need to know, O’Reilly, 2009. More Info.

Jesse, Feiler, How to Do Everything with Web 2.0 Mashups, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2007. More Info.

Jones, Bradley L.,Web 2.0 Heroes: Interviews with 20 Web 2.0 Influencers, Wiley, 2008. More Info.

Hay, Deltina, A Survival Guide to Social Media and Web 2.0 Optimization: Strategies, Tactics, and Tools for Succeeding in the Social Web, Dalton Publishing, 2009. More Info.

Kaushik, Avinash, Web Analytics 2.0: The Art of Online Accountability and Science of Customer Centricity, Sybex, 2009. More Info.

Lanclos, Patsy and David Hoerger, Weaving Web 2.0 Tools into the Classroom, Visions Technology in Education, 2008. More Info.

McAfee, Andrew, Enterprise 2.0: New Collaborative Tools for Your Organization’s Toughest Challenges, Harvard Business School Press, 2009. More Info.

O’Reilly, Web 2.0 Principles and Best Practices, O’Reilly Media, 2006. More Info.

Raymond, Yee, Pro Web 2.0 Mashups: Remixing Data and Web Services, Apress, 2008. More Info.

Richardson, Will, Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms, Corwin Press,  2008. More Info.

Rigby, Ben, Mobilizing Generation 2.0: A Practical Guide to Using Web2.0 Technologies to Recruit, Organize and Engage Youth, Jossey-Bass, 2008. More Info.

Scott, Bill and Theresa Neil, Designing Web Interfaces: Principles and Patterns for Rich Interactions, O’Reilly Media, 2009. More Info.

 Segaran, Toby, Programming Collective Intelligence: Building Smart Web 2.0 Applications, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2007. More Info.

Sankar, Krishna and Susan A. Bouchard, Enterprise Web 2.0 Fundamentals, Cisco, 2009. More Info.

Shuen, Amy, Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide: Business thinking and strategies behind successful Web 2.0 implementations, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. More Info.

Solomon, Gwen and Lynne Schrum, Web 2.0: New Tools, New Schools, International Society for Technology in Education, 2007. More Info.

Tuten, Tracy L., Advertising 2.0: Social Media Marketing in a Web 2.0 World, Praeger, 2008. More Info.

Vlist, Eric van der, Danny Ayers, Erik Bruchez, Joe Fawcett and Alessandro Vernet, Professional Web 2.0 Programming, Wrox, 2006. More Info.

Vossen, Gottfried and Stephan Hagemann, Unleashing Web 2.0: From Concepts to Creativity, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007. More Info.

Zabir, Omar AL, Building a Web 2.0 Portal with ASP.Net 3.5: None, O’Reilly Media, 2008. More Info.

Zervaas, Quentin, Practical Web 2.0 Applications with PHP, Apress, 2007. More Info.


Cloud Computing

Ahson, Syed A., Cloud Computing and Software Services: Theory and Techniques, CRC, 2009. More Info.

Beard, Haley, Cloud Computing Best Practices for Managing and Measuring Processes for On-demand Computing, Applications and Data centers in the Cloud with SLAs, Emereo Pty Ltd, 2008. More Info.

Benioff, Marc and Carlye Adler, Behind the Cloud: The Untold Story of How Went from Idea to Billion-Dollar Company and Revolutionized an Industry, Jossey-Bass, 2009. More Info.

Beswick, James, Getting Productive With Google Apps: Increase productivity while cutting costs, 415 Systems, Inc. 2009. More Info.

Buckley, Peter, The Rough Guide to Cloud Computing, Rough Guides, 2010. More Info.

Chou, Timothy, Cloud: Seven Clear Business Models, LuLu Press, 2009.

Fida, Adnan, Workflow Scheduling for Service Oriented Cloud Computing: cloud, grid, scheduling, services, simulation, workflows, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2009. More Info.  

Fingar, Peter, Dot Cloud: The 21st Century Business Platform Built on Cloud Computing, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2009. More Info.

Franklin, Curtis Jr. and Brian Chee, Cloud Computing: Technologies and Strategies of the Ubiquitous Data Center, CRC, 2010. More Info.

Granneman, Scott, Google Apps Deciphered: Compute in the Cloud to Streamline Your Desktop, Prentice Hall PTR, 2008. More Info.

Greenfield, Adam, Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing, New Riders Publishing, 2006. More Info.

Greer, Melvin B. Jr. Software as a Service Inflection Point: Using Cloud Computing to Achieve Business Agility, iUniverse, 2009. More Info.

Hoff, Christofer, Rich Mogull, and Craig Balding, Hacking Exposed: Virtualization & Cloud Computing Secrets & Solutions, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, October 2010. More Info.

Hurwitz, Judith, Robin Bloor, Marcia Kaufman and Fern Halper, Cloud Computing For Dummies, For Dummies, 2009. More Info.

Jennings, Roger, Cloud Computing with the Windows Azure Platform, Wrox, 2009. More Info.

Katz, Richard N. and Diana G. Oblinger, The Tower and the Cloud: Higher Education in the Age of Cloud Computing, EDUCAUSE , 2008. More Info.

Krutz, Ronald L. and Russell Dean Vines, Cloud Security: A Comprehensive Guide to Secure Cloud Computing, Wiley, August, 2010. More Info.

Linthicum, David S., Cloud Computing and SOA Convergence in Your Enterprise: A Step-by-Step Guide, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2009. More Info.

Marks, Eric A. and Bob Lozano, Executive’s Guide to Cloud Computing, Wiley, 2010. More Info.

Mather, Tim, Subra Kumaraswamy and Shahed Latif, Cloud Security and Privacy: An Enterprise Perspective on Risks and Compliance (Theory in Practice), O’Reilly Media, 2009. More Info.

McDonald, Kevin T., Above the Clouds: Managing Risk in the World of Cloud Computing, IT Governance Publishing, 2010. More Info.

Menken, Ivanka, Cloud Computing - The Complete Cornerstone Guide to Cloud Computing Best Practices Concepts, Terms, and Techniques for Successfully Planning, Implementing and Managing Enterprise IT Cloud Computing Technology, Emereo Pty Ltd, 2008. More Info.

Miller, Michael, Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online, Que, 2008. More Info.

Mulholland, Andy, Jon Pyke, Peter Fingar,  Enterprise Cloud Computing: A Strategy Guide for Business and Technology Leaders, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2010. More Info.

Murty, James, Programming Amazon Web Services: S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2008. More Info.

Ouellette, Jason, Development with the Platform: Building Business Applications in the Cloud, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2009. More Info.

Reese, George, Cloud Application Architectures: Building Applications and Infrastructure in the Cloud, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. More Info.

Rhoton, John, Cloud Computing Explained: Implementation Handbook for Enterprises, Recursive Press, 2009. More Info.

Rittinghouse, John and James Ransome, Cloud Computing: Implementation, Management, and Security, CRC, 2009. More Info.

Sapir, Jonathan, Power in the Cloud: Using Cloud Computing to Build Information Systems at the Edge of Chaos, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2009. More Info.

Sarna, David E. Y., Implementing and Developing Cloud Computing Applications, Auerbach Pub, October, 2010. More Info.

Velte,Toby, Anthony Velte and Robert Elsenpeter, Cloud Computing, A Practical Approach, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2009. More Info.

White, Tom, Hadoop: The Definitive Guide, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. More Info.

Wohl, Amy, Succeeding at SaaS: Computing in the Cloud, Wohl Associates, 2008. More Info.


Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)

Amberpoint Inc., et al., An Implementor’s Guide to Service Oriented Architecture - Getting It Right , Westminster Promotions, 2008. More Info.

Bell, Michael, Service-Oriented Modeling (SOA): Service Analysis, Design, and Architecture, Wiley, 2008. More Info.

Bertino, Elisa, Lorenzo Martino, Federica Paci and Anna Squicciarini, Security for Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures, Springer, 2009. More Info.

Bieberstein, Norbert, Sanjay Bose, Marc Fiammante, Keith Jones and Rawn Shah, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Compass: Business Value, Planning, and Enterprise Roadmap, IBM Press, 2005. More Info.

Biske, Todd, SOA Governance, Packt Publishing, 2008. More Info.

Carter, Sandy, The New Language of Business: SOA and Web 2.0, IBM Press, 2007. More Info.

Christudas, Binildas A., Malhar Barai and Vincenzo Caselli, Service Oriented Architecture with Java: Using SOA and web services to build powerful Java applications, Packt Publishing, 2008. More Info.

Erl, Thomas, et al, Web Service Contract Design and Versioning for SOA, Prentice Hall PTR, 2008. More Info.

Erl, Thomas, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): Concepts, Technology, and Design, Prentice Hall PTR, 2005. More Info.

Erl, Thomas, Service-Oriented Architecture: A Field Guide to Integrating XML and Web Services, Prentice Hall PTR , 2004. More Info.

Erl, Thomas, SOA Design Patterns, Prentice Hall PTR; 1 edition, 2009. More Info.

Erl, Thomas, SOA Principles of Service Design, Prentice Hall PTR; 1 edition, 2007. More Info.

Gabhart, Kyle and Bibhas Bhattacharya, Service Oriented Architecture Field Guide for Executives, Wiley, 2008. More Info.

Graham, Ian, Managing Service Oriented Architecture Projects With Agile Processes, John Wiley & Sons, May 2010. More Info.

Hasan, Jeffrey and Mauricio Duran, Expert Service-Oriented Architecture in C#, Apress; 2 edition, 2006. More Info.

Hewitt, Eben, Java Soa Cookbook, O’Reilly Media, 2009. More Info.

Hurwitz, Judith, Robin Bloor, Marcia Kaufman and Fern Halper, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) For Dummies, 2nd Edition, For Dummies; 2nd edition, 2009. More Info.

Josuttis, Nicolai M., SOA in Practice: The Art of Distributed System Design, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2007. More Info.

Juneja, Girish, Blake Dournaee, Joe Natoli and Steve Birkel, Service Oriented Architecture Demystified: A pragmatic approach to SOA for the IT executive, Intel Press, 2007. More Info.

Krafzig, Dirk, Karl Banke and Dirk Slama, Enterprise SOA: Service-Oriented Architecture Best Practices, Prentice Hall PTR , 2004. More Info.

Lawler, James P. and H. Howell-Barber, Service-Oriented Architecture: SOA Strategy, Methodology, and Technology, Auerbach Publications, 2007. More Info.

Marks, Eric A. and Michael Bell, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): A Planning and Implementation Guide for Business and Technology, Wiley, 2006. More Info.

Marks, Eric A., Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Governance for the Services Driven Enterprise, Wiley, 2008. More Info.

McGovern, James, Oliver Sims, Ashish Jain and Mark Little, Enterprise Service Oriented Architectures: Concepts, Challenges, Recommendations, Springer, 2006. More Info.

Melvin, Greer B. Jr., The Web Services and Service Oriented Architecture Revolution: Using Web Services to Deliver Business Value, iUniverse, Inc., 2006. More Info.

Mulholland, Andy, C. S. Thomas, and P. Kurchina, Mashup Corporations: The End of Business as Usual, Evolved Technologist, 2008. More Info.

Rosen, Michael, Boris Lublinsky, Kevin T. Smith and Marc J. Balcer, Applied SOA: Service-Oriented Architecture and Design Strategies, Wiley, 2008. More Info.

Sims, Oliver, Ashish Jain and Mark Little, Enterprise Service Oriented Architectures: Concepts, Challenges, Recommendations, Springer Netherlands, 2009. More Info.

Suzuki, Junichi, Developing Effective Service Oriented Architectures: Concepts and Applications in Service Level Agreements, Quality of Service and Reliability, Information Science Publishing, July 2010. More Info.

Sweeney, Rick, Achieving Service-Oriented Architecture: Applying an Enterprise Architecture Approach, Wiley, June 2010. More Info.

Thuraisingham, Bhavani, Security for Service Oriented Architectures, Auerbach Publications, March, 2010. More Info.


Business Process Management

Antonucci, Yvonne Lederer,  et al, Business Process Management Common Body Of Knowledge, CreateSpace, 2009. More Info.

Burlton, Roger, Business Process Management: Profiting From Process, Sams, 2001. More Info.

Business Process Management Group, In Search Of BPM Excellence: Straight From The Thought Leaders, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Chang, James, F., Business Process Management Systems: Strategy and Implementation, Auerbach Publications, 2005. More Info.

Debevoise, Tom, Business Process Management with a Business Rules Approach: Implementing The Service Oriented Architecture, BookSurge Publishing, 2007. More Info.

Demelio, Robert, Basics of Process Mapping, Productivity Press, 1996. More Info.

Dickstein, Dennis I. and Robert H. Flast, No Excuses: A Business Process Approach to Managing Operational Risk, Wiley, 2008. More Info.

Fiammante, Marc, Dynamic SOA and BPM: Best Practices for Business Process Management and SOA Agility, IBM Press, 2009. More Info.

Fingar, Peter, Extreme Competition: Innovation And the Great 21st Century Business Reformation, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Fingar, Peter, The Real-Time Enterprise : Competing on Time, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2004. More Info.

Garimella, Kiran, The Power of Process: Unleashing the Source of Competitive Advantage, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2006. More Info.

Grosskopf, et al, The Process: Business Process Modeling using BPMN, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2009. More Info.

Harmon, Paul, Business Process Change, Second Edition: A Guide for Business Managers and BPM and Six Sigma Professionals, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007. More Info.

Harrison-Broninski, Keith, Human Interactions: The Heart And Soul Of Business Process Management, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2005. More Info.

Jeston, John, Beyond Business Process Improvement, On To Business Transformation: A Manager's Guide, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2009. More Info.

Jeston, John and Johan Nelis, Business Process Management, Second Edition: Practical Guidelines to Successful Implementations, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2008. More Info.

Jeston, John and Johan Nelis, Management by Process: A practical road-map to sustainable Business Process Management, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2008. More Info.

Khan, Rashid N., Business Process Management: A Practical Guide, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2004. More Info.

Madison, Dan, Process Mapping, Process Improvement and Process Management, Paton Press, 2005. More Info.

Ould, Martin A., Business Process Management: A Rigorous Approach, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2005. More Info.

Schurter, Terry, The Insiders’ Guide to BPM: 7 Steps to Process Mastery, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2010. More Info.

Schurter, Terry, Customer Expectation Management: Success Without Exception, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2006. More Info.

Sharp, Alec and Patrick McDermott, Workflow Modeling, Artech House Publishers, 2008. More Info.

Smith, Howard and Peter Fingar, Business Process Management: The Third Wave, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2006. More Info.

Smith, Howard and Peter Fingar, IT Doesn't Matter-Business Processes Do, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2003. More Info.

Spanyi, Andrew,  Business Process Management (BPM) is a Team Sport: Play it to Win!, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2003. More Info.

Spanyi, Andrew,  More for Less: The Power of Process Management, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Thompson, Ken, The Networked Enterprise: Competing for the Future Through Virtual Enterprise Networks, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Thompson, Ken, Bioteams: High Performance Teams Based on Nature's Most Successful Designs, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2008. More Info.

Weske, Mathias, Business Process Management: Concepts, Languages, Architectures, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. More Info.


Cloud Computing Glossary


Brief Glossary of NIST Definitions

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) definition describes five essential characteristics of Cloud Computing:


1. Rapid Elasticity: Elasticity is defined as the ability to scale resources both up and down as needed. To the consumer, the cloud appears to be infinite, and the consumer can purchase as much or as little computing power as they need.


2. Measured Service: In a measured service, aspects of the cloud service are controlled and monitored by the cloud provider. This is crucial for billing, access control, resource optimization, capacity planning and other tasks.


3. On-Demand Self-Service: The on-demand and self-service aspects of cloud computing mean that a consumer can use cloud services as needed without any human interaction with the cloud provider.


4. Ubiquitous Network Access: Ubiquitous network access means that the cloud provider’s capabilities are available over the network and can be accessed through standard mechanisms by both thick and thin clients. This does not necessarily mean Internet access. By definition, a private cloud is accessible only behind a firewall. Regardless of the type of network, access to the cloud is typically not limited to a particular type of client).


5. Location-Independent Resource Pooling: Resource pooling allows a cloud provider to serve its consumers via a multi-tenant model. Physical and virtual resources are assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. The location of the physical resources underneath the cloud infrastructure is not known to the consumer, and can change dynamically. (In many cases privacy laws and other regulations require the cloud provider's resources to be in a particular location. The cloud provider and cloud consumer must work together to adhere to those regulations.


Interoperability: Interoperability is concerned with the ability of systems to communicate. It requires that the communicated information is understood by the receiving system. Interoperability is not concerned with whether the communicating systems do anything sensible as a whole. (The definitions of interoperability, integration and portability are based on the work at


Integration: Integration is the process of combining components or systems into an overall system. Integration among cloud-based components and systems can be complicated by issues such as multi-tenancy, federation and government regulations.


Portability: Portability is the ability of moving components or systems between environments. In the world of cloud computing, this includes software and hardware environments (both physical and virtual).


Service Level Agreement (SLA): An SLA is contract between a provider and a consumer that specifies consumer requirements and the provider’s commitment to them. Typically an SLA includes items such as uptime, privacy, security and backup procedures.


Federation: Federation is the act of combining data or identities across multiple systems. Federation can be done by a cloud provider or by a cloud broker.


Broker: A broker has no cloud resources of its own, but matches consumers and providers based on the SLA required by the consumer. The consumer has no knowledge that the broker does not control the resources.


Multitenancy: Multitenancy is the property of multiple systems, applications or data from different enterprises hosted on the same physical hardware. Multitenancy is common to most cloud-based systems.


Cloud bursting: Cloud bursting is a technique used by hybrid clouds to provide additional resources to private clouds on an as-needed basis. If the private cloud has the processing power to handle its workloads, the hybrid cloud is not used. When workloads exceed the private cloud’s capacity, the hybrid cloud automatically allocates additional resources to the private cloud.


Policy: A policy is a general term for an operating procedure. For example, a security policy might specify that all requests to a particular cloud service must be encrypted.


Governance: Governance refers to the controls and processes that make sure policies are enforced.


Virtual Machine (VM): A file (typically called an image) that, when executed, looks to the user like an actual machine. Infrastructure as a Service is often provided as a VM image that can be started or stopped as needed. Changes made to the VM while it is running can be stored to disk to make them persistent.


Commonly Used Cloud Computing Terms

Cloud Computing: In its essence, Cloud Computing is a massive distributed computing model consisting of three tiers: infrastructure, platform and services (see below), and is about using swarms of computers to deliver unprecedented computing power to people and organizations across the globe. Cloud computing isn't a new technology nor a new architecture... it's a new delivery model.

Cloud Computing Services: cloud providers fall into three categories: software-as-a-service providers that offer web-based applications; infrastructure-as-a-service vendors that offer Web-based access to storage and computing power; and platform-as-a-service vendors that give developers the tools to build and host Web applications.

SaaS: Software-as-a-Service, or SaaS, is a software delivery method that provides access to software and its functions remotely as a Web-based service. SaaS allows organizations to access business functionality at a cost typically less than paying for licensed applications since SaaS pricing is based on a monthly fee. Also, because the software is hosted remotely, users don't need to invest in additional hardware. SaaS removes the need for organizations to handle the installation, set-up and often daily upkeep and maintenance.

PaaS: Platform as a service, or PaaS, is one of the categories of Cloud Computing; it delivers a fully baked application development environment you can subscribe to and use immediately; with PaaS, developers use free programming tools offered by the service provider to create applications and deploy them in the cloud. The infrastructure is offered by the PaaS provider or its partners, which charge by some usage metric such as CPU use or page views.

IaaS: Infrastructure-as-a-service, or IaaS, is the category of cloud computing that refers to Web-based access to storage and computing power on the cloud. It is also known as the ‘Elastic Cloud’ as the server capacity and application back-end scalability could be extended based on application’s users demand. Included in this category are providers of infrastructure software needed to deploy private clouds based on virtualization technologies.

Intercloud: The Intercloud is similarly a "cloud of clouds." Both public and private versions (intraclouds) not only co-exist, but interrelate. Intraclouds (private clouds) will exist for the same reasons that intranets do: for security and predictability

Public Cloud: a public cloud is a service that anyone can tap into with a network connection and a credit card. "Public clouds are shared infrastructures with pay-as-you-go economics," explains Forrester analyst James Staten in an April report. "Public clouds are easily accessible, multitenant virtualized infrastructures that are managed via a self-service portal."

Private Cloud: A private cloud attempts to mimic the delivery models of public cloud vendors but does so entirely within the firewall for the benefit of an enterprise's users. A private cloud would be highly virtualized, stringing together mass quantities of IT infrastructure into one or a few easily managed logical resource pools.

Private Cloud (Virtual): A virtual private cloud (VPC) is a private cloud existing within a shared or public cloud

Cloud Operating System: A cloud operating system is a new category of software that is specifically designed to holistically manage large collections of infrastructure – CPUs, storage, networking – as a seamless, flexible and dynamic operating environment. Analogous to the operating system that manages the complexity of an individual machine, the cloud operating system manages the complexity of a datacenter.

Virtualization: Virtualization is the creation of a virtual version of something, such as an operating system, a server, a storage device or network resources. Operating system virtualization is the use of software to allow a piece of hardware to run multiple operating system images at the same time. The technology got its start on mainframes decades ago, allowing administrators to avoid wasting expensive processing power.

Virtual Machine: A virtual machine (VM) is an environment, usually a program or operating system, which does not physically exist but is created within another environment. In this context, a VM is called a "guest" while the environment it runs within is called a "host." Virtual machines are often created to execute an instruction set different than that of the host environment. One host environment can often run multiple VMs at once. Because VMs are separated from the physical resources they use, the host environment is often able to dynamically assign those resources among them.

Utility Computing: Utility computing is a service provisioning model in which a service provider makes computing resources and infrastructure management available to the customer as needed, and charges them for specific usage rather than a flat rate. Like other types of on-demand computing (such as grid computing), the utility model seeks to maximize the efficient use of resources and/or minimize associated costs.

Grid computing (or the use of a computational grid) is applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time - usually to a scientific or technical problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or access to large amounts of data.


Expanded Business-Impact Glossary form Dot.Cloud


In business, agility means the capability of rapidly and cost efficiently adapting to changes. See agile enterprise. 


agile enterprise

A fast moving, flexible and robust firm capable of rapid and cost efficient response to unexpected challenges, events, and opportunities. Built on policies and business processes that facilitate speed and change, it aims to achieve continuous competitive advantage in serving its customers. Agile enterprises use diffused authority and flat organizational structure to speed up information flows among different departments, and develop close, trust-based relationships with their customers and suppliers: the agile enterprise is the process-managed enterprise with a self-organizing workforce that requires employees to assume multiple roles, improvise, spontaneously collaborate, and rapidly redeploy from one work team to another and another, while simultaneously learning from and teaching their peers.


asynchronous communication

Eliminates the need for the recipient to be available when the requester is trying to communicate with it. Email is asynchronous; a telephone call is synchronous communication, except in the case where a voice message is left for the recipient. Asynchronous communication is typical in inter and intra team communication in autonomous virtual teams.


autonomous teams

Self-organizing, self-managed teams that function as part of complex adaptive systems. 



High performance teams where collective leadership replaces command and control, and team communication is based on short messages that are instantly broadcast and received “in situ” wherever the receivers are.



A blog (a contraction of the term "Web log") is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs.



The recirculation into the source country of a technology innovation that has been improved by a developing country, and then taken global by the developing country, giving it competitive advantage over the source country. 


boundary manager

The boundary manager represents a new role for traditional managers that replaces internal team supervision with coordination of inter-team interactions.


business innovation

Much more than just invention, business innovation is the creation of new business models and initiatives that bring compelling new value to the marketplace. 3M’s Geoffrey Nickelson once described the critical point, “Research is the transformation of money into knowledge. Innovation is the transformation of knowledge into money.”


business operations platform

A Cloud Platform that provides complete business process management services to support dynamic multi-company business processes. The platform puts on-demand processes into the hands of business users, allowing multiple companies to come together to seize an opportunity or thwart a business threat.


business process management (BPM)

The management philosophies and technologies used to manage the full lifecycle of business processes (discovery, design, deployment, analysis and optimization). BPM is first and foremost a holistic process-managed approach to business versus a functional management approach to business. For an in-depth understanding, read Business Process Management: The Third Wave (


business process management system (BPMS)

A BPMS is a software system that enables companies to model, deploy and manage business processes that span multiple enterprise applications, corporate departments and business partners—behind the firewall and over the Internet.


business process

A business process is the complete and dynamically coordinated set of collaborative and transactional activities that deliver value to customers. Business processes are how work gets done.



A system that blends characteristics of chaos and order. The term was coined by Dee Hock, founder of Visa. The mix of chaos and order is often described as a harmonious coexistence displaying characteristics of both, with neither chaotic nor ordered behavior dominating. Some hold that nature is largely organized in such a manner; in particular, living organisms and the evolutionary process by which they arose are often described as chaordic in nature.



In lay terms the Cloud is “My software, my storage, my computing power all residing somewhere up there, somewhere in the Cloud. It’s all about the disembodiment of the system itself. The Cloud is an abstract concept, not a physical entity, consisting of computing, communication and information resources that can be accessed as services over the Internet. (See also Cloud Computing).


Cloud Computing 

In its essence, Cloud Computing is a massive distributed computing model consisting of three tiers: infrastructure, platform and services (see below), and is about using swarms of computers to deliver unprecedented computing power to people and organizations across the globe.


cloud infrastructure  

The foundation tier of Cloud Computing that provides the storage, and computer power, and networks and servers that enable self-service automation, scaling, flexing, variable costs, and rich data and analytics.


cloud platform 

The tools, programming and information models, supporting software runtime components, and related technologies. Platforms facilitate implementing Cloud Services that depend on the Cloud Computing infrastructure tier, e.g., Amazon Web Services and Google Apps.


cloud services 

A delivery model for information services for businesses and individuals that build on a cloud platform to create dynamic processes and applications.


collective leadership 

As a cornerstone of the notion of bioteams, collective leadership means that any group member can take the lead. Nature’s groups are never led exclusively by one member; different group members lead as needed. Multi-Leader groups possess much greater agility, initiative and resilience than groups that are only led by a single exclusive leader.


commitment processing

In traditional IT information tracking is the object of computing support. In human interaction management systems, commitments made between and among participants is the object of computing support. See also, speech acts.


complex adaptive systems

A dynamic network of many agents acting in parallel, constantly acting and reacting to what the other agents are doing. Control tends to be highly dispersed and decentralized. Coherent behavior in the system arises from competition and cooperation among the agents themselves, resulting from a huge number of decisions made every moment by many individual agents.


computer utility

Computer utility and grid computing are often defined as one and the same, but grid computing is the actual technology, and the computer utility is the pay-as-you-use pricing model.



The business model where a company cooperates with a competitor to gain mutual benefit. For example, Virgin Mobile uses Sprint’s mobile phone network infrastructure in the U.S. They both compete against each other for customers, but share revenues from Virgin customers.


creative destruction

Economist Joseph Schumpeter describes creative destruction as innovations that cause old inventories, ideas, technologies, skills, and equipment to become obsolete, sometimes over night. Sparks of radical innovation by entrepreneurs topple incumbents and drive long-term economic growth. Increasingly, incumbents are turning to the notion of internal creative destruction to reinvigorate performance, even at the expense of traditional lines of business.


crowd sourcing 

The act of taking a task traditionally performed by an employee, internal group or contractor, and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people, in the form of an open call to develop a new technology, carry out a design task, or help capture, systematize or analyze large amounts of data.


customer-driven innovation

This is a form of outside-in innovation where, through ongoing dialogs with customers (face-to-face, blogs, wikis, social networks), unanticipated needs are uncovered and unanticipated uses of products and services are uncovered and drive innovation. 



See personalization.


distributed computing 

Distributed computing approaches have come under many names over the years: parallel computing, grid computing, cluster computing, hardware as a service, on-demand computing, Web computing, autonomic computing, utility computing and more. These days the concept of computing in the Cloud encompasses all or parts of these technical terms. 


emerging business opportunities

A unique management system and approach to business innovation, well documented by IBM during its 1990s comeback, that focuses on “white space” or “at the edge” opportunities that can become profitable businesses. New concepts are incubated through small pilots—experiments involving just a few prominent customers. Experimentation is key to the management of risk when it comes to innovation.


Enterprise 2.0

An organization that uses social software in a business context. The professional association, AIIM, defines Enterprise 2.0 as a system of Web-based technologies that provide rapid and agile collaboration, information sharing, emergence and integration capabilities in the extended enterprise.



Once a marketing gimmick, “free” has emerged as a full-fledged economy, where the freemium business model has been applied across many industries, including technology, transport, media, medicine and finance.



Free and premium. A business model where basic services are offered for free, while charging a premium for advanced features.



A value that is a quality or attribute that must be generated, grown, cultivated, nurtured. A generative thing can not be copied, cloned, faked, replicated, counterfeited, or reproduced. It is generated uniquely, in place, over time. In the digital arena, generative qualities add value to free copies, and therefore are something that can be sold.


grid computing

A form of distributed computing whereby a “super and virtual computer” is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, acting in concert to perform very large tasks. Grids form an infrastructure foundation for Cloud Computing.


human interaction management

A set of management principles, patterns and techniques complementary to business process management that provides process-based support for human work and allows it to be integrated in a structured way with more routinized work processes that are often largely automated. HIM unifies various existing disciplines (Role Activity Theory, Cognitive Theory, Social Systems Theory, Learning Theory, and process-based Computer Science disciplines) into a complete theory of human, collaborative work, and shows how this theory can be used not only to model, but also to manage, any human-driven business processes.



A hypervisor, also called a virtual machine manager, is a program that allows multiple operating systems to share a single hardware host. For example, Xen "Xen hypervisor"  is a virtual machine monitor that allows several guest operating systems to be executed on the same computer hardware concurrently. Xen was initially created by the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory "University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory"  and is now developed and maintained by the Xen community as free software.



Something new. But there’s much more to innovation than invention: see business innovation.


long tail

A term coined by Chris Anderson of Wired magazine, describes the niche strategy of businesses, such as or Netflix, that offer a large number of unique items, each in relatively small quantities. An Amazon employee described the long tail as follows: “We sold more books today that didn't sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the books that did sell yesterday.”


loosely coupled

Loosely coupled services, even if they use incompatible system technologies, may be joined to create composite services. This ability for services to be joined on demand is a foundation of service-oriented architecture (SOA).



In the wired world of the 21st century, management has started to become based less on the notion of command-and-control, and more about facilitation and support of collaborative activity, utilizing principles such as those of human interaction management to deal with the complexities of self-managed teams.



The ability to develop new integrated services quickly, to combine internal services with external or personalized information, and to make these services tangible to the business user through user interfaces, blending SOA and Web 2.0 capabilities. Business mashups extend the idea to the rapid creation of virtual network enterprises, virtual corporations and extended enterprises.


master data management (MDM)

Methods and techniques used to ensure that master data, as contrasted with transactional data, remains consistent across computer applications and Web services. In the past, various departments of large companies often maintained their own master data, creating inconsistency problems. For example, when a given department made a name change due to a woman getting married, other departments still had the maiden name. As companies embrace cross-departmental BPM and adopt service-oriented business models, MDM is absolutely essential.



A principle in software architecture where a single instance of the software runs on a Cloud services provider’s infrastructure, serving multiple client organizations or tenants. Each tenant organization works with a customized virtual set of computing resources.


network effects

The beneficial effect when the number of other people consuming the same kind of good or service grows, making the good or service increasingly valuable. The classic example is the telephone. The more people own telephones, the more valuable the telephone is to each owner. Web 2.0 creates many new opportunities that engender network effects  "network effects" that have great implication for businesses. Social software, blogs, wikis, Web syndication, Skype, MySpace, Facebook, and tagging, all provide vehicles to build communal knowledge and collaboration via network effects.


Office 2.0

A type of office suite offered by websites in the form of software as a service that can be accessed online from any Internet-enabled device running any operating system. The term is a neologism originated from Ismael Ghalimi in an experimental effort to test how much of his computer-based work he could accomplish using online productivity tools rather than the more traditional packages running on a local PC.

 on demand

On-demand computing most frequently refers to a type of computing service where the actual software is presented to the user, once a subscription to the service is successfully processed. In a typical on-demand computing model, the software is not actually installed at the user device, rather it is accessed via the Internet or centralized access point. On-demand software is typically delivered by an application service provider. This type of service offering is also frequently referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS). See also on-demand processes.


on-demand processes

By externalizing a company’s business processes, they can be rendered as services that can be integrated into end-to-end processes with participants including suppliers, trading partners and customers allowing the entire value delivery system to respond to changing customer demands, market opportunities and threats. In the Cloud, business users expect to be able to personalize their work environment, customize look and feel, update content using information from any source at any time, all within a single browser environment. In addition, they want to add new functionality, change processes and share these with others, e.g., project reporting, ad-hoc collaborations, request for proposal, and prototyping. On-demand processes are a cornerstone of business agility and empowering self-managed teams.



A cornerstone of the emerging Web 3.0, an ontology in computer science and information science is a formal representation of a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts; or in short, a specification of a shared conceptualization. An ontology provides a shared vocabulary, that can be used to model a domain: the types of objects and concepts that exist, and their properties and relations. Ontologies are used in artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it.

open innovation

The idea behind open innovation is that in a world of widely distributed knowledge, companies cannot afford to rely entirely on their own research, but should instead buy or license processes or inventions from outsiders. Conversely, internal inventions not being used in a firm’s business should be taken outside the company (e.g., through licensing, joint ventures, spin-offs). In contrast, closed innovation refers to processes that limit the use of internal knowledge within a company and make little or no use of external knowledge. Don’t confuse open innovation with open source, free software. Open innovation is all about the money to be made.



In the world of technology, we speak of computer “users.” In the world of Web 1.0 people were users "users"  that basically had Web pages served up to them (the read-only Internet). In the world of Web 2.0, users become “participants "participants" prosumers (producers and consumers) actively contributing the information base with which they work and share with others (the read-write Internet).



Winning companies harness the passion, energy and competitive spirit of all of its people, while typical companies bury those factors under a pyramid of management hierarchies and bureaucracies. Human teams have huge amounts of discretion and self-awareness, and thus need a sense of purpose, a common set of shared values "shared values"  and passion "passion" —we can’t treat a human team like an ant colony. It’s a shared vision "shared vision," a higher calling at Whole Foods Markets, “Whole Foods, Whole People, Whole Planet” that creates the passion that drives the company’s self-managed teams toward the future. Without such vision and passion, people become short-sighted and mean-spirited, looking out only for themselves.



Web pages are personalized based on the interests of an individual. Personalization implies that the changes are based on implicit data, such as items purchased or pages viewed or music listened to (e.g., Amazon suggested titles). The term customization is used when a company uses explicit data such as ratings or preferences to give its customers an opportunity to create and choose product to certain specifications (e.g., radio).



A podcast is an audio or video distributed over the Internet by syndicated download, through Web feeds, to portable media players and personal computers. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster. The term is a portmanteau of the words iPod and broadcast and was redefined by some parties as a backronym for “Personal On Demand broadCASTING.”



The late management expert, Peter Drucker, once said about predictions: “It is not so very difficult to predict the future. It is only pointless. But equally important, one cannot make a decision for the future. Decisions are commitments to action. And actions are always in the present, and in the present only. But actions in the present are also the one and only way to make the future.” These are the reasons companies are shifting from “make to forecast” to “make to demand,” and why agility is the Holy Grail of business.


process-managed enterprise

An enterprise where the leaders "process-managed enterprise"  recognize that it’s the end-to-end, enterprise-wide business processes that make or break the company, not the optimization of functional units or departments within the enterprise. Process management, not functional management, is the overarching management approach and philosophy. The process-managed enterprise requires BPM systems to realize the goals they set for holistic process management work. Companies that adopt this perspective often interchange the terms BPM and BPM systems, for the two go hand in glove if management intent is to be translated into execution. See also: business process management (BPM).



process enterprise versus functional enterprise

In a functional enterprise, no one has overall responsibility for an end-to-end process. Department or unit managers are specialized by function (silos), e.g., account, sales, production and so on, and are responsible only for a narrow segment of a process. No one is empowered to knock down silos, and optimize the overall end-to-end process. As we are instructed by general systems theory, optimizing individual functions does not lead to optimizing the overall process. Traditional functional organizations interfere with the ability of their people to perform process work.



Producer–consumer. The role of producers and consumers begin to blur and merge to reach a high degree of mass customization. Consumers take part in the production process especially in specifying design requirements (e.g., configuring a PC from HP or Smart car from Mercedes). Web 2.0 takes the notion of prosuming a step further, where in cases like Wikipedia prosuming is all.


reputation management

The process of tracking opinions about people, companies, products and services, reporting on those opinions, and reacting to create a positive feedback loop. Reputation is different from branding for the fact that the former can be created and the latter is an identity that evolves. Reputation management is neither public relation nor data collecting or advertisement management. It deals with the root cause of a problem, offers solutions, sets processes in motion and monitors progress towards these solutions. Reputation management systems use various predefined criteria for processing complex data to report reputation. Reputation management has come into wide use with the advent of Web 2.0 social networks.



Reuse of preexisting software has been the Holy Grail of software engineering for years (e.g., subroutines, code libraries, patterns, object inheritance, components and frameworks). In the world of service-oriented architecture, reuse goals take a major step forward through designing services that are abstract, stateless, autonomous loosely coupled. And the key is that the abstractions of services represent reusable business process segments, not just reusable software. Those process segments can be reused as companies design innovative business processes as "situational" business processes "situational business processes"  across for multiple business channels. That is, they can be adapted to completely new business situations. So it is that software flexibility and reuse enables business process flexibility and reuse "reuse." That’s the stuff of business agility in hyper-competitive markets.



People who are temporarily reassigned from each partner to a joint venture that are committed to the successful completion of the project. Secondees are critical to virtual network enterprises and other forms of extended enterprises where business processes are to be optimized across the entire value delivery system.



Software components "software components"  that are essentially collections of self-contained software that can be accessed and used without knowing the location or platform the service is deployed on. What’s really important is that “services” are packaged to contain repeatable business tasks or business process segments, not technical packages. Thus a service is simply a business task, such as ship completed order, which, in turn, is a part of a larger sales process. Services become the Lego blocks for building software, and situational business processes rapidly and efficiently.


service-oriented architecture (SOA)

A set of organizing principles that provide a comprehensible structure or framework for modeling and constructing complex systems. Certain architectural principles are used in the design of services so that they are reusable, abstract, autonomous, stateless, discoverable, composable, and loosely coupled. The potential benefits of service-oriented computing include a major reduction in the cost of software development, and speed and agility in building or changing software—and business processes—as business needs change. See also: service.


situational business processes

Business processes "business processes" that are disembodied as “services” and whose many different uses weren’t known at the time the processes were developed. On-demand processes can be mashed up in new ways as participants in other processes. For example, an airline’s processes for flight planning, reservations and ticketing could be mashed up with a conference organizer’s registration process. In each situation, the policies and business rules governing the processes will likely be slightly different. Thus situational business processes "situational business processes," whose unintended contexts may draw on a given company’s core processes, could become the norm; and they must be managed as diligently as all other mission-critical business processes. See also: on-demand processes.


social networks

Web-based communities of people who share interests and activities, or are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. Most social network services provide a variety of ways for users to interact, such as e-mail and instant messaging services. One example of social networking being used for business purposes is, which aims to interconnect professionals: more than 20 million registered users from 150 different industries.


speech acts

Although a theory used in linguistics and the philosophy of language, speech acts are the foundation for tracking negotiations and commitments in workgroups. In providing computing support of human interaction management, a network of speech acts can constitute straightforward “conversations for action,” where requests, promises, declarations and commitments can be tracked and audited. This model of support for human-driven work processes shifts the computing paradigm from “information processing” to “commitment processing,” putting management controls into the otherwise noisy and confusing forms of collaboration.



Swarm intelligence is artificial intelligence based on the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, typically made up of a population of simple agents interacting locally with one another and with their environment. The agents follow very simple rules, and although there is no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local interactions between such agents lead to the emergence of complex global behavior. Natural examples include ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacterial growth, and fish schooling. In a business context these notions are a foundation for Bioteams which in turn make it possible for virtual networked enterprises to swarm in response to new business opportunities and threats.


time-based competition

A competitive strategy that emphasizes time over costs, as the major factor of competitive advantage. For example, products fifty percent over budget but introduced on time have been found to generate higher profit levels than products brought to market within budget but six months late. To become a time-based competitor, a firm must change its current processes and alter the decision structures used to design, produce and deliver to the customer. Time-based competition appears in two different forms: fast to market and fast to produce. Firms that compete with fast-to-market strategies emphasize reductions in design lead-time. Fast-to-product firms emphasize speed in responding to customer demands for existing products. Wal-Mart has been able to dominate its industry by replenishing its stores twice as fast as its competitors. Firms competing in this area focus on lead-time reduction throughout the system, from the time the customer places an order until the customer ultimately receives the product.



See participants.


utility computing

The packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public electricity or water utility. Also referred to as on-demand computing, advantages center on eliminating the costs of acquiring hardware, especially sufficient hardware to accommodate peak loads. Companies with very large computations or a sudden peak in demand can also avoid the delays that would result from physically acquiring and assembling a large number of computers. Utility computing is the marketing model, “grid computing” is the technical distributed computing model. See also: on demand and grid computing.


virtual enterprise network

Multiple companies band together to create more comprehensive solutions to market needs, and small companies band together with large companies to bring innovation to market.



In computer science, a technique used to implement a certain kind of virtual machine environment that provides a complete simulation of the underlying hardware. The result is a system in which all software capable of execution on the raw hardware can be run in the virtual machine, including all operating systems. It hides the physical characteristics of computing platform from the users.


Web 2.0

The term “Web 2.0” describes the changing trends in the usage of World Wide Web technology and Web design that aim to enhance creativity, communications, secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the Web.


Web 3.0

A supposed third generation of Internet-based services. Web 1.0 was read-only, Web 2.0 is read-write, and Web 3.0 "Web 3.0" will be read-write-execute. Web 3.0 (the intelligent Web "the intelligent Web") will involve yet another step-change in how we use the Internet and tame the infoglut "infoglut" . For example, ontologies "ontologies"  will provide the semantics behind the Semantic Web "Semantic Web"  opening up new possibilities for intelligent agents "intelligent agents"  to do our bidding, and open information extraction (IE) "information extraction (IE)" will power new forms of search in a way that avoids the tedious and error-prone tasks of sifting through documents returned by a search engine.



A wiki is a collection of Web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses them to contribute or modify content, using a simplified markup language. Wikis are often used to create collaborative Web sites and to power community Web sites. The collaborative encyclopedia Wikipedia is one of the best-known wikis. Wikis are used in business to provide intranet and knowledge management systems. In contrast, a blog (Web log), typically authored by an individual, does not allow visitors to change the original posted material, only add comments. Wiki means “quick” in Hawaiian.


wisdom of crowds

A diverse collection of independently-deciding individuals is likely to make certain types of decisions and predictions better than individuals or even experts. The idea draws many parallels with statistical sampling, where the average of the averages equals the true average. The wisdom of crowds manifests itself in social networks and prediction markets.


Work Processor

Companies wouldn’t hire a new office worker without providing him or her with a “word processor,” but why don’t companies also provide each executive, manager and employee with a “Work Processor?” The Work Processor, "Work Processor"  can be equated to the more sophisticated term, the business process management system.

Tech Target’s Margaret Rouse asked in her blog, “Have you ever wanted to make up a word? Now’s the time. Just make sure it has something to do with a Cloud. Play a little Rolling Stones and get those neurons firing (Hey, hey, hey, hey — get off of my cloud). I just want to jot these down before I forget. Seems like every day I stumble across more newly-coined cloud terms. “Did you know how Cloud Computing got its name?

From flowcharts, where a cloud is used to represent the Internet”


cloud app – a software application that is never installed on a local machine; it’s always accessed over the Internet.


cloud arcs – short for cloud architectures. Designs for software applications that can be accessed and used over the Internet. (Cloud-architecture is just too hard to pronounce.)


cloud bridge "cloud bridge" – running an application in such a way that its components are integrated within multiple cloud environments (which could be any combination of internal/private and external/public clouds).


cloudcenter – a large company, such as Amazon, that rents its infrastructure.


cloud client – computing device for cloud computing. Updated version of thin client.


cloud envy – used to describe a vendor who jumps on the cloud computing bandwagon by rebranding existing services.


cloud portability – the ability to move applications and associated data across multiple cloud computing environments.


cloud provider – makes storage or software available to others over a private network or public network (like the Internet.)


cloud service architecture (CSA) – an architecture in which applications and application components act as services on the Internet


cloud storage – (just what it says) Sometimes compared to leasing a car. You’ll have monthly payments but hopefully you’ll always have the latest and greatest technology. You don’t own the technology though.


cloudburst – what happens when your cloud has an outage or security breach and your data is unavailable.


cloud as a service (CaaS) – a cloud computing service that has been opened up into a platform that others can build upon.


cloud-oriented architecture (COA) – IT architecture that lends itself well to incorporating cloud computing components.


cloudsourcing – outsourcing storage or taking advantage of some other type of cloud service.


cloudstorm – connecting multiple cloud computing environments. Also called cloud network.


cloudware – software that enables building, deploying, running or managing applications in a cloud computing environment.


cloudwashing – slapping the word “cloud” on products and services you already have.


external cloud – a cloud computing environment that is external to the boundaries of the organization.


funnel cloud – discussion about cloud computing that goes round and round but never turns into action (never “touches the ground”)


hybrid cloud  – a computing environment that combines both private and public cloud computing environments.


internal cloud – also called a private cloud "private cloud."A cloud computing-like environment within the boundaries of an organization.


private cloud – an internal cloud behind the organization’s firewall. The company’s IT department provides software and hardware as a service to its customers, the people who work for the company. Vendors love the words “private cloud "private cloud." 

public cloud "public cloud" – a cloud computing environment that is open for use to the general public.


roaming workloads – the backend product of cloudcenters.


vertical cloud "vertical cloud"  – a cloud computing environment optimized for use in a particular vertical industry


virtual private cloud (VPC) – similar to virtual private networks but applied to cloud computing. Can be used to bridge private cloud and public cloud environments.